By: Marian Dziwisz

Marian Dziwisz born on 01.01.1943 in the village Michałowice near Krakow. He finished Primary School in Wola Zachariaszowska; Lower Seminary of the XX Missionaries in Cracow (1961). He obtained a master’s degree in Polish philology at the Higher Pedagogical School in Krakow (1966, now the Pedagogical University) and a doctorate in philosophy (1980). He was an editor and secretary of the following editorial teams: socio-cultural monthlies: “ZDANIE”; “PISMO LITERACKO-ARTYSTYCZNE” and “FORMUM MYŚLI WOLNEJ” in Krakow; adjunct professor at the Institute of Teacher Education of the National Research Council in Krakow; teacher of Polish language in high schools and technical high schools; lecturer in philosophy at Krakow universities, including at the Postgraduate Studies in Philosophy/Ethics for Teachers at the Krakow Institute of Education Development. In 1987-1989 he became interested in religious studies and became co-editor of an anthology of texts: “Buddhism” (1987); “Taoism” (1988) and editor of the anthology “Judaism” (1989) published as part of the Library of “Pisma Literacko – Artista”. He is the author of entries in the field of philosophy and religious studies for the “Popular Encyclopedia Powszechna” published in 1995-1998 by the Publishing House FOGRA in Krakow. In 1985-1993, under his guidance, young scouts created and edited the summer magazine “Pod Hnatowym Berdem” in the Scouts’ Hostel “Ostoja” in Suchy Rzeki. In 1992-2000, together with students of the XIX High School, he edited the monthly magazine “Wyraz”. After the publication of poems offered during his studies in the pages of “Nowa Wieś” by the editor Kazimierz Długosz, he made his debut as a poet in 1978. Later, his poems were published, among others, in the pages of: “Zdania”, “Okolic”, “Pisma Literacko-Artystyczny” until 1990.His books of poetry include “Ergo sum” 2007, “Madonna” 2011, “Imperatyw kategoryczny” 2014, “Tak sobie” 2020 [available in the Jagiellonian Library];in 2015 – 2017 three volumes of short stories “Semper in altum – Zawsze wzwyż” in LSW. Publications: a number of articles in scientific and socio-cultural journals.


Where religion interferes in people’s lives, it is where it causes the most pain, suffering, exclusion (…) religious needs must be tamed, if only – in this very heated situation in the world – to become independent from dogmas that cannot cope in the new, complicated situation. Olga Tokarczuk [i].

The common sources of religion, all forms of art and politics are:1) the fear of enslavement, death and oblivion; 2) the will to live, often even after biological death; the will connected with it: a) to control oneself – the life processes; b) to control others and the world; 3) the care for oneself, one’s nearest and dearest, the surrounding nature, the order in the universe, and connected with it: presence, „tenderness” – love.

          The problem is, as the narrator said in The Plague by A. Camus, that:

„Evil in the world flows almost always from ignorance, while good will can do as much harm as wickedness if it is not enlightened. People are good rather than evil, and in fact that is not the point. But they do not know to a greater or lesser degree; and when it comes to what is called virtue or vice, the most desperate vice is ignorance, which thinks it knows everything, and then feels entitled to kill. The soul of the murderer is blind and there is no true goodness or love without the greatest clarity of Visio[i]”[2] .

The cultivation of any art, including literature, requires a minimum of imagination and knowledge, which make it possible to give a recurrent or permanent form to what is living, spontaneous and transient. Thus, out of the will and concern for a dignified life of the human community, out of spontaneous behaviours and the words accompanying them, various rituals accompanying birth, initiation, the joy of harvesting, death and burial as well as the memory of the dead were born. The artists gave the spontaneous behaviours repeated forms: dance, playing instruments, songs, drama, theatre, etc. Thanks to their memory, imagination and will to create, they stripped the world of its substantiality, making it their world enclosed in images, sounds and words, about which they could sing, tell stories, play instruments, gesture or play the role of characters and use props to create the illusion of a reality ordered by themselves, stimulating the audience to imitate or desire their own behaviour.

Just as with „the One” [Tad] or „Chaos” being the force of inner energy, a flash of light, the voice of an explosion, a shock wave, the shaping of the universe began. The created planets of bodies took their place in space and, bound together by the forces of energy, gravitation and magnetism, established their own orbits around the centre, constituted by the reactor of power and light, and the remains, most often radioactive, were thrown down into the depths of „Tartarus – the black holes”. This is how the original chaos in nature is ordered, through the formation of individuals, species and genera. Radioactive fallout causes genetic changes in organisms, contributing to their death, modification and evolution.

 The survival and development of species is determined by body condition, reproductive capacity, food resources and natural selection. Among animals also natural organisation and hierarchy. Its establishment and order are determined, on the one hand, by the parent [most often maternal care], on the other, by bodily stature, the flash of the eyes and the power of the voice, establishing the principles of cooperation and coexistence with the surrounding nature.  The evolution of man from primates to „homo Faber” was determined by the awareness of his own body and the use of its members as tools for transforming nature in order to satisfy his needs.

The next step was to understand the meaning of „the word”, which allows naming and ordering the chaos of the surrounding nature, i.e. the transition to the level of homo sapiens. At the moment of transferring images, sounds and numbers stored in memory onto material carriers: clay, stone, wood, paper or using them to create sculptures, paintings, residential and sacral buildings, similarly to using one’s own memory and body to reproduce the words of songs, stories, drama and behaviours established by creators – actors, people conceived and cared about the development of a „superman”. „For man – as Zratustra said – is a rope stretched between the animal and the superman, a rope over an abyss. […] That is what is great about man, that he is a bridge and not a goal; that is what is admirable about man, that he is a passage and a vanishing point[ii].

The superman, contrary to all previous notions, is not: 1) a first-person narrator, even if of the most magnificent work; 2) no messiah, of which there have been many in the history of the Jewish people; a high priest of any denomination, including popes; 3) a ruler of a nation or state or any dictator or providential statesman; no genius in any field of science, although they, especially Einstein, have made the greatest contribution to its development. He is already among us, equipped with a virtual memory, which on more and more perfect carriers is able to store not only the contents of written books, images of works of art but also, but everything that surrounds him. At the request of man, if only he has something stored in his memory, he can search for it and now even translate it into almost any language. It is not able to think on its own, because for the time being it is at the service of humans. Nevertheless, it has multiplied, by cloning, almost like the whole human population. Almost anyone can use it, but by the same token it can be controlled by rulers and spies. In its memory the world is shaped.

How prophetic was the vision of „Mayer in the Books of James”, who said: „When the last spark of divine light [the word and all that is endowed with life]returns to its source [virtual reality] the Messiah will be revealed to us. All laws will be annulled. The distinction between kosher, between holy and cursed will disappear, the distinction between night and day will cease, and the distinction between man and woman will disappear. The letters in the Torah will be rearranged so that a new Torah will appear and everything will be reversed. Human bodies will become light as spirits and new souls will descend into them from under the very throne of the good God. Then, too, will disappear need for food and drink, sleep will become superfluous, and every desire will dissipate like smoke. Carnal reproduction will give way to the merging of holy names. The Talmud will be covered with dust, completely forgotten and unnecessary. It will be bright everywhere from the radiance of the Shechina[iii] .

After all, almost such is the world of the superman. The corporeal man, who conceived, fed and raised him, is becoming more and more dependent on him – as Olga Tokarczuk said, a „zombie”. And all this began with a change of language, in which the familiar alphabets were replaced by the rejected and condemned „ligature”[iv] . But it was not the letter but numbers, sound and light that made it possible to transform almost the entire world into a virtual one, making everywhere in it bright from the light of „the Shechinah” [Facebook Word?!]

Someone will ask: what does this rather lengthy argument have to do with the Nobel Prize winner’s statement quoted at the beginning? Well, it does, because everything began with the sacrifice of bards and the enslavement of free speech by priests and rulers.

          While I share many of Olga Tokarczuk’s views, it is difficult to agree with the one quoted at the beginning, because it is not religion, ideology, politics or even propaganda that interferes with life, but people who invoke God or gods, ideas, or the interests of a nation or a social group. General concepts do not explain anything. In the face of them people become overpowered and dumb. It is not the words of fascist propaganda that are responsible for the segregation of people, exclusion, hate speech and violence, but the people who use words and create propaganda like Archbishop Marek Jędraszewski [in Poland] defending the so-called “Christian values” – formulated in the words of Archbishop Jędraszewski. In his sermons he publicly condemns all efforts to akcept:

(a) the subjectivity of women and their right to self-determination, including their own bodies and parenthood;

(b) the rights of non-heterosexual people, their identity, equal rights in society, including to enter into civil partnerships and to adopt and raise children.

He argues that “LGBTIQ people are not people, but an ideology”. He opposes seeing everyone as a human being, regardless of their characteristics, such as the colour of their skin, the diversity of their sexual orientation or their attitude to religion.

Thus, people who use words are responsible for shaping attitudes both towards nature and towards mutual relations between people.

It is people eager for power over others and all earthly goods, considering themselves superhuman, who have turned concepts into mere words, the explanation of whose meanings they have reserved for themselves. No wonder, then, that shortly after the Second World War Tadeusz Różewicz wrote in his poem „Ocalony[v][“The Saved”]:

[i] A. Camus, The Plague. Translated by. Joanna Guze. PIW Warsaw 1976, p. 110

[ii] Friedrich Nietzche, Tako rzecze ZaratustraTranslated by W Bderent [in:] Mieczysław Łojek Teksty filozoficzne. WSiP, Warsaw 1987, p. 266

[iii] O. Tokarczuk, The Jacobite Books. WL Kraków 2019, p. 753

[iv] Ligature – a font or gif in digital font, the eye (image) of which contains at least two joined letters in the form of one common new character. Ligatures famously used by the Romans and later also in Glagolitic are a feature of each language. Currently used in computer software, they are the default. They provide enough space for all possible characters, which had and still has a great influence on the spread of the Unocode standard. Rev. Benedict Chmielowski, the author of New Athens, also known from Ksiąg Jakubowe by O. Tokarczuk, mentions that books written in ligature of witchcraft characters were ordered to be burned in full, and cartels written in ligature worn by soldiers around their necks were considered superstitious. [For:]


I am twenty four years old
	I survived
	Led to the slaughter.
These are empty and unambiguous names:
	Man and animal
	Love and hate
	Enemy and friend
	Darkness and light.

	A man is killed like an animal
	I have seen:
	Vans of chopped up people
	Who will not be saved.

	Concepts are only expressions:
	Virtue and vice
	Truth and falsehood
	Beauty and ugliness
	Bravery and cowardice.

	Virtue and vice weigh the same
	I have seen: A man who was one
	Vicious and virtuous.
	I seek a teacher and a master
	May he restore my sight, my hearing and my speech
	Let him name things and concepts once more
	Let him separate light from darkness.

	I am twenty-four years old
	I survived
	Led to the slaughter.

Zofia Nałkowska preceded „Medaliony”[Medallions], which describe the atrocities of German fascism and attitudes towards violence, with the motto: People did this to people. This means that the perpetrators of extermination during the war were not gods or God, and religion and faith contain very different contents, which help to live in harmony with other people and nature, to respect, to love, but also those that serve to sow hatred, exclusion and, finally, to kill. Thus, the words of any ideology or policy can be used to save and enslave, to stimulate compassion and concern, as well as for hatred, contempt and crime.

Singers and bards participating in the life of a community helped people to understand the world around them and the laws that govern it. They aroused admiration and recognition. In gratitude, the people paid tribute to them and hosted them at their homes. Present in the songs, poems and stories of „I” The singer and storyteller, through his empathy, blurred the boundaries between himself and his audience. It created a „democratic space” for everyone who wanted to express themselves and create a “voice that speaks[i]“. In this way, they attracted their listeners – they seduced the people, who began to value less, or even disregard the orders of the priests and leaders, which had to end in a „mimetic conflict” characterised by René Gorard[ii].

          People’s egoism, greed, contempt for others led to hate speech and the use of force against man, but they were also the driving force behind the development of a civilisation of science and technology; the exploitation of the weak, enslaved or submissive; the plundering of our planet’s resources. Religious teaching, rituals, ceremonies and, above all, sacrifices, are just some of the ways of keeping the people obedient, under the threat of sin and punishment and the promise of eternal life after death.

          The differences between Vedism, Judaism and Christianity as forms of repression are serious, considering that at the turn of the 7th and 6th centuries BC, mainly under the influence of the interpretation of the Vedas in philosophical schools, a number of trends emerged from Vedism, including non-theistic Buddhism, Jainism and the Adjivist movement, and later also Sankhya and Yoga. After the birth of Christianity, reformist currents emerged in Judaism. Islam was a response to the crusades of Western Christianity.

          The hierarchs and dependent rulers of Roman Catholic Christianity and Islam were particularly oppressive towards the followers and aggressive towards the followers of other religions. This was due to the creation of a new conceptual language detached from the substantiality of the universe, nature and man, which originated with Aristotle.

[i] Cf.: O. Tokarczuk – Czuły narrator [Tender narrator. Op. cit.

[ii] René Girard [in:] Guide to the Philosophical Literature of the 20th Century. op. cit. s. 119 -129


Without in any way diminishing the merits of Catholicism, especially those of the clergy who have contributed to the development of science and culture and those who have shown concern not only for the spiritual life of the faithful, but have accompanied and supported them in their daily concerns, at the same time showing empathy towards dissenters and non-believers, it is necessary to point to the enslaving aspects of the word in Catholicism as well as to its totalitarian character.

          By Catholicism is meant the ecclesiastical form of the Roman Catholic Church, from other Christian denominations in terms of organisation, dogma, morality and liturgy.

          The religious, political, economic, social and legal doctrine of Catholicism, unlike that of primitive Christianity, is based not on the gospels, but on the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments by the Sicilian-born Saul, born in Tarsus, Sicily, from a Jewish family of the tribe of Benjamin. Saul received his education in Jerusalem. He held Roman citizenship and belonged to the political party of the Pharisees. He began his work by persecuting Christians. He is first mentioned as a participant in the stoning of Stephen in the Temple Square, and then as a ruthless persecutor of Christians in Damascus[i] . Apparently seeing the solidarity of the followers of Jesus and their willingness to die in defence of their freedom and their faith, he a Roman citizen, could play a much more serious role as their leader rather than their persecutor. Such a start to the biography of Shaw, who took the name Paul, is deceptively reminiscent of the story of Moses, who received his education in Egypt, and was a scribe in the court of the Pharaoh. For personal reasons, he killed an Egyptian [Ex 2:11- 15], and when he undertook the mission to lead the Jews out of Egypt, he ordered the murder of the followers of the original religion [Ex 32:1-6; 27 – 29 for which he met the punishment, a ban on entering the promised land [Ex 34:4].

          When the persecution of Christians began on a massive scale, at the service of the chief priests, “he destroyed the Church by entering houses, kidnapping men and women, and throwing them into prison” [Acts 8:3; 9:3]. [Acts 8:3; 9:1-2]. Thirsty for power, after his criminal mission in Damascus and at the same time experiencing that persecution was actually counterproductive in the spread of Christianity, he realized that he could play a much more important role, not as a servant of the chief priests and the king, but as a protector and organizer of the emerging church. [Acts 9 1 – 17].

          In the sources it is difficult to find evidence of the important role played in the “conversion” of Swail by a physician and theologian of Greek origin – Luke , but he is the faithful companion of Paul’s mission, the author of the “Gospel”, the “Acts of the Apostles” and probably the editor of Paul’s “Epistles”. His importance in achieving his aims is indicated by Paul himself in the Epistles [Flm 23; Col 4:14; 2 Tim 4:11].

          There is no doubt that it was Luke who gave a Gnostic character to Christian teaching, placing the main emphasis, on the one hand, on the saving mission of Jesus, through his teaching, passion and death, and on the other, on the domination of evil and “sin” in the world. To this end, in writing the Gospel he revised the account of his predecessors: Mark and Matthew. He omitted whole passages of Jewish tradition present in Mark [Mk 7:1 – 23; 9:11 – 13] and rejected the antitheses contained in the “Sermon on the Mount” of the “Gospel of Matthew” [Mt 5, 21, 27, 33 – 37].

          In the “Gospels”, “Acts” and “Epistles” of Paul, we are dealing with the doctrinal interpretation of the “Old Testament” and the mentioned Gospels leading to the formulation of principles of faith, morality, law and political goals for the creation of a new social and political order in the world.

          Luke and Paul made the cornerstone of religious doctrine, ethics and politics the dogma of “original sin”, a concept not found in Judaism or other religions.

This sin burdened all mankind – past, present and future generations – with the responsibility for the martyrdom of Jesus. This sin, according to the preached doctrine, can only be “washed away” by the act of baptism and the acceptance of the new faith. The cause of Jesus’ martyrdom, however, are also other “sins” resulting from the carnal nature of man and the omnipresence of Satan. These can be “justified by faith” or “absolved” and “forgiven” by the priests.

          The concepts: “sin”, “pardon” and “salvation” and “dedication to the service of God, the Church and the salvation of the soul” became the foundation for building the community of believers and the power of the Church. In his mission, St Paul was elevated by Luke to the rank of “tetracha” [this is the name Luke gave to the kings of Israel, including Herod – Lk 9:7], that is, ruler of the people,

State and religion [of the Church]. The concept of conscience was superseded by the precepts of the moral law.

          The consequence of the reform of early Christianity through Paul and Luke was the division of people: 1) into those who are above the law and above responsibility, i.e. bishops and clergy, and the subjects – those responsible to them; 2) Christians, pagans, Jews, heretics and reprobates and their opposites – martyrs for the faith, faithful servants of the Church and penitents seeking her favours.

          The imposition of the burden of original sin on the woman became the basis for her slavish treatment by the hirarchs of the Church and, according to their teaching, by politicians obedient to them and by many men up to the present day. This finds expression in acts of legislated law concerning mainly the duties of procreation and the functions performed in the Church.

The Pauline essence of Catholicism was developed further by Augustine, Bishop of Hippo, and by other church fathers, especially Thomas Aquinas. Augustine justified the external significance of rites and ceremonies; the political power of the church; the importance of belonging to it for salvation, according to the principle: “extra Ecclesiam Nulla salus” – “outside the church there is no salvation”. The full politicisation of the church that he advocated reached its proper level at the beginning of the 4th century, with the edict of tolerance of Constantine the Great, who made Christianity the state religion. In return, the church became the mainstay of the existing political, social and economic system. It firmly rejected the protests of those who regarded the alliance of the church authorities with the emperor as a deviation from the gospel and apostolic tradition, which resulted in the emergence of hermit and monastic movements and heretical movements that were bloodily fought.

          Since the edict, the church: 1) had at its disposal not only the word and considerable resources from the sacrifices of the faithful, but also had at its disposal armed men; 2) in accordance with Augustine’s thesis, considered the followers of other religions as sinful pagans, worthy of condemnation and death; 2) held the Jews responsible for the martyrdom of Jesus.

          Theodosius I: 1) ordered that temples of pre-Christian cult be closed, demolished or transformed into tabernacles of the proclaimed faith; 2) destroyed objects of worship; 3) recognised the performance of such worship and the sacrifice of crimes. By decree of the emperor, the people loyal to the church, led mainly by monks, were directed against the pagans. Self-trials and pogroms were launched against them.

          Pope Innocent III (1198 – 1216) gave the church the character of a totalitarian institution. Upon assuming the pontificate, he proclaimed to the world that he was the substitute of Christ, the successor of Peter, the anointed of God, the tetrarch placed between heaven and earth; the judge of all, but he himself could not be judged by anyone. All before him, as before God, are to bend their knees, and his deputies on earth and those subordinate to them are to be boundlessly submissive and obedient under pain of punishment. Both bishops and secular rulers will be but a reflection of papal authority over the world, for they are but instruments of the substitute of Christ. All people are sinful and by their sins they contributed to the death of Jesus. They can only redeem their sins by becoming believers in the church, through: repentance and contrition; sacrifices to God, saints of the Lord and of the Church; deep faith, submission and obedience to priests. Bishops and clergy cannot be judged by secular rulers, for they are subject only to the authority and judgment of the pope. All land is the property of the church and subject to the authority of the pope. The belonging of lands to the church is confirmed by papal bulls.

The principles formulated by Innocent III were confirmed and developed by subsequent popes and universal councils. Despite the passage of centuries, John Paul II, in the Encyclical “Fdes et ratio[ii]“, referring to Paul’s teaching, confirmed that: 1) “the Church is the depositary of the Revelation of Jesus Christ and from this derives the power of her authority” [Cor 4:2]; 2) The cause of all evil in the world is “original sin” – disobedience to God through which: “The human capacity to know the truth has been eclipsed, as a result of turning away from Him who is the source of truth. This is also what the Apostle [Paul] says, showing how man’s thoughts have become <<wicked>> as a result of sin, and his understanding distorted and leading to falsity”. (cf. Rom 1:21-22); 3) The true history of humanity – “the history of salvation” – began with the death of Jesus on the cross; therefore, according to Paul’s teaching, since in the pagan religions” natural knowledge has been eclipsed by idolatry, myths and mystery cults must be resisted, with greater emphasis on divine transcendence” (cf. Rom 1:21-32) [iii][10].

          Equipped with this doctrine, the authorities of the church – successive popes, bishops and clergy – subjugating the secular rulers – emperors, kings, princes and their armies, set out to conquer the world, without regard for human suffering and the fatal consequences of conquest for nature. The desire to rule the whole earth became an impulse for geographical discoveries, which, however, did not serve the purpose of getting to know the world and the people living in it – establishing conversations and friendships with them – but for conquests in the name of God.

          Olga Tokarczuk, in Stockholm, said:

“Let us look at a certain moment in world history.

It is the day when, on 3 August 1492, a small caravel named ‘Santa Maria’ sails from the quay of the port of Palos in Spain. Christopher Columbus was in command. The sun is shining, there are still sailors walking around the quay and port workers are loading the last crates with provisions onto the ship. It is hot, but a light breeze blowing from the west saves the farewell families from fainting. Seagulls stroll solemnly along the ramp, attentive to the actions of man.

This moment, which we now see through time, led to the deaths of 56 million of the nearly 60 million Native Americans. At the time, their population made up about 10 percent of the Earth’s total population. Europeans unwittingly brought with them deadly gifts – diseases and bacteria to which the native Americans were not immune. Added to this was ruthless slavery and killing. The extermination took years and changed the country. Where once beans and corn, potatoes and tomatoes grew, in sophisticatedly irrigated farmland, wild vegetation returned. Almost 60 million hectares of cultivated land have turned into jungle over the years. As the vegetation regenerated, it absorbed huge amounts of carbon dioxide, thus weakening the greenhouse effect. This in turn has lowered the global temperature of the Earth.

This is one of many scientific hypotheses to explain the onset of the Little Ice Age in Europe, which brought a prolonged cooling of the climate at the end of the 16th century[iv]”.

The conquest of the world, led to the enslavement for many centuries of the peoples of many nations, to contempt, exclusion, hatred of internal wars.

A significant role in this process was played, as Marian Turski said at Auschwitz, by so-called historical politics and the conviction that sacrifice and the ritual of sacrifice keep the universe in existence and form the foundation of history leading to ‘making the earth subject to itself’ and to salvation.

Popes, bishops and rulers and politicians loyal to them, on the one hand condemned all free thought and creativity that did not serve to strengthen their rule, while on the other hand they never condemned technical progress and the over-exploitation of the earth’s resources. No wonder then that Konrad in Adam Mickiewicz’s „Dziady, part III”, who suffered the enslavement of the Christian powers together with his nation in the Improvisation, accuses God, and by whose hand the nation was enslaved:

Translated with (free version)
"You are silent, you are silent! I know now, I have examined you,
I have understood what You are and how You have ruled. -
Liar, who called you love,
Thou art but wisdom.
People think, not with the heart, Your ways will be found out;
They think, not with the heart, they will trace Thy weapons.
	Only he who is engraved in books,
	In metal, in number, in corpse flesh,
	Only he who has succeeded
	To take a part of your power.
	He will find poison, gunpowder, steam,
	He'll find the glow, the smoke, the roar,
	He will find righteousness, and bad faith
To the wise and the ignorant.
	To thoughts you have given the use of the world,
	You leave hearts to eternal penance,
	You gave me the shortest life
	And the strongest feeling. -"

Until the twenty-first century, the promise of eternal life, was realized, through the memory of the faithful, who, paying, ordered a mass for the dead and an expiation on All Souls’ Day, referring to the rite of the grandfathers. Now, however, it is clear that eternal life and the promised heaven is to be found in parish registers, which, for the convenience of church administrators, will be digitised, and then some electronic archivist will find information, photographs and images to bring the characters to life in the virtual world, so that they can be judged according to their merits for the church – left in paradise, or thrown into the dustbin, that is, into hell.,73032,i.html
  A. Camus, The Plague. Translated by. Joanna Guze. PIW Warsaw 1976, p. 110
  Friedrich Nietzche, Tako rzecze ZaratustraTranslated by W Bderent [in:] Mieczysław Łojek Teksty filozoficzne. WSiP, Warsaw 1987, p. 266
  O. Tokarczuk, The Jacobite Books. WL Kraków 2019, p. 753
  Ligature - a font or gif in digital font, the eye (image) of which contains at least two joined letters in the form of one common new character. Ligatures famously used by the Romans and later also in Glagolitic are a feature of each language. Currently used in computer software, they are the default. They provide enough space for all possible characters, which had and still has a great influence on the spread of the Unocode standard. Rev. Benedict Chmielowski, the author of New Athens, also known from Ksiąg Jakubowe by O. Tokarczuk, mentions that books written in ligature of witchcraft characters were ordered to be burned in full, and cartels written in ligature worn by soldiers around their necks were considered superstitious. [For:]
  Cf.: O. Tokarczuk - Czuły narrator [Tender narrator. Op. cit.
  René Girard [in:] Guide to the Philosophical Literature of the 20th Century. op. cit. s. 119 -129
  See Wilfid J. Harrington. The Key to the Bible. PAX Warsaw 2000, p. 402
  Jan Paweł II, Encyklika „Fides et ratio” Biblos”
  Ibidem, s. 13, 16, 19, 21-22, 37, 56
  O. Tokarczuk - The tender narrator.

One Comment Add yours

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s